Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Psychiatry Res — Although the evidence from first-degree relatives was not as robust, it showed a tendency for relatives to have more MPAs than controls. In addition, we set 0. Specifically, for schizophrenia versus healthy controls, the difference in means between two groups was the mean of the schizophrenia sample minus the mean of the healthy controls. A systematic search was conducted on the literature pertaining to MPAs in patients with schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. The flow chart for the inclusion and exclusion of studies for the current meta-analysis.
The Waldrop scale identifies mi- nor physical anomalies strongly associated with schizophrenia.
Nevertheless, assessment of the new items clearly indicates. physical anomalies (MPAs) in schizophrenia patients and control subjects, and the ability of the items of the Waldrop scale to predict the patient-control status. All the studies included in meta-analysis were used Waldrop Scale or Modified Waldrop Scale.
Although the number of the scale items were.
Psychiatry — Psychological Medicine — Therefore, further evidence for MPAs as an endophenotype is necessary, particularly pertaining to the criterion of the marker being present in unaffected family members at a higher rate than in the general population.
Minor physical anomalies in Tourette syndrome
Several studies from the same research groups had apparently overlapping samples to varying degrees . Gottesman and Shields described an endophenotype as an internal, intermediate phenotype i.
Abstract Background Minor physical anomalies MPAs have been found to be more prevalent in schizophrenia than control participants in numerous studies and may index a potential endophenotype for schizophrenia.
examined with the Waldrop scale, an instrument for assessing MPAs. 16 items with total scores ranging from 0 to 25 (total MPA score), was. Waldrop scale, sensitivity, specificity.
checklist of items from DSM—IV and information obtained a slightly modified Waldrop Physical Anomaly Scale.
View Article Google Scholar 8.
The standard difference in means was 0. Download: PPT. Lal R, Sharma S Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia. Table 2. View Article Google Scholar 4.
These funding agents had no role in the study design, collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, writing of the manuscript, or decision to submit the paper for publication.
Waldrop scale items
|The meta-regression was performed on account of heterogeneous effect sizes across studies.
Lal R, Sharma S Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia. These funding agents had no role in the study design, collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, writing of the manuscript, or decision to submit the paper for publication.
Psychiatry Res 21— Since the individual effect size distributions may be heterogeneous across studies, the Q statistic was computed. Although the number of studies reporting on specific MPAs was limited, a number of individual items had relatively high ORs, and most results were homogeneous.
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study with the help of 13 items of the Waldrop scale as- sessed minor physical anomalies in the 80 inpatient schizo- phrenic populations at the Central institute of.
Discussion In the present study we reviewed the updated literature on MPAs in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected biological relatives, and healthy controls.
Schizophrenia is commonly conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder  ; thus, further studies about individual MPA items would be helpful in better understanding the neurodevelopmental underpinnings of the disorder.
Schizophrenia Research — The combined effect size comparing patients and controls was 0. The fail-safe number of studies was The standard difference in means was 0.
Biomarker profile of minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia patients.
Some studies expanded rating scales and assessed previously unmeasured MPAs items such as the use of quantified anthropometric assessments e.
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|Schizophr Bull — Compton MT, Walker EF Physical manifestations of neurodevelopmental disruption: are minor physical anomalies part of the syndrome of schizophrenia?
Performed the experiments: TX MC. Because most studies did not report on individual items, more research is needed to determine which items are most sensitive for schizophrenia.
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Child Development —