In Polish territories were looted and abandoned by the retreating Russian armytrying to emulate the scorched earth policy of ;   the Russians also evicted and deported hundreds of thousands of its inhabitants suspected of collaborating with the enemy. London: Cambridge University Press. Namespaces Article Talk. Much of the heavy fighting on the war's Eastern Front took place on the territory of the former Polish state. Handicapped by internal division, limited resources, heavy surveillance, and persecution of revolutionary cells in Poland, the Polish national movement suffered numerous losses. The International School of New Media is an affiliated institute of the university. Flag Coat of arms. The army of Tsarist Russia ceased to be a factor when the Bolsheviks pulled Russia out of the war. The Innenstadt is the main tourist attraction and consists of the old town as well as the former ramparts.
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The Allies broke the resistance of the Central Powers by autumnas the Habsburg monarchy disintegrated and the German imperial government collapsed.
Historic parts can be visited. During the decades that followed the January Insurrection, Poles largely forsook the goal of immediate independence and turned instead to fortifying the nation through the subtler means of education, economic development, and modernization. The National Democracy of Roman Dmowski became the leading vehicle of the right by espousing a doctrine that combined nationalism with hostility toward Jews and other minorities.
Handicapped by internal division, limited resources, heavy surveillance, and persecution of revolutionary cells in Poland, the Polish national movement suffered numerous losses. After the Congress of Vienna, Russia had organized its Polish lands as the Congress Polandgranting it a quite liberal constitutionits own army, and limited autonomy within the tsarist empire.
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Flag Coat of arms.
The insurgencies arose mainly in the Russian zone of partition to the east, about three-quarters of which was formerly Polish territory. When the government of Congress Poland proclaimed solidarity with the rebel forces shortly thereafter, a new Polish-Russian war began. The main train and bus station lie in its Northern part.
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The international balance of forces did not favour the recovery of statehood when both Russia and Germany appeared bent on the eventual eradication of Polish national identity.
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Cologne 1 Dortmund 1. Urban workers bore the full range of hardships associated with early capitalismand the intensely nationalistic atmosphere of the day bred frictions between Poles and the other peoples remaining from the old heterogeneous Commonwealth of Two Nations.
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This circumstance afforded the Poles political leverage as both sides offered pledges of concessions and future autonomy in exchange for Polish loyalty and army recruits. Increasing oppression at Russian hands after failed national uprisings finally convinced Polish leaders that the recent insurrection was premature.
Holstentoremblem of the city.